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Communicable Disease

Local Health Departments are required by law to investigate and follow-up all suspected or confirmed communicable diseases or conditions.  In North Carolina, there are 66 reportable diseases or conditions for which investigation and follow-up are required. 

Investigation and follow-up includes:

  • Identifying the source of the infection, if possible
  • Implementing control measures to prevent the spread of infection
  • Assuring adequate treatment of persons with infection to minimize spread

Tuberculosis

Testing for TB, required by many employers, is available at the Health Department by appointment.  Testing is free for persons who are contacts to active TB cases, symptomatic, and/or HIV positive.  For others, the cost is $14.00. 

The Health Department also provides treatment and follow-up for persons with TB infection or disease.  Included in the follow-up is contact tracing of persons identified as having been exposed to an infectious TB case.  Medications to treat TB are provided at no charge. For more information on tuberculosis, including a link to the North Carolina TB Policy Manual, go to http://www.epi.state.nc.us/epi/tb/

Prevention

The diseases in BOLD are diseases that can largely be prevented through immunization.  Many of the vaccines to prevent these diseases are available at the Health Department (see Immunizations). 

Following immunizations, the most effective way to prevent transmission of communicable diseases is adequate handwashing

Reportable diseases are:

AIDS Monkeypox 
Anthrax* Mumps
Botulism NGU (other than lab-confirmed chlamydia)
Brucellosis Pelvic inflammatory disease
Campylobacter Plague
Cholera Polio
Chlamydia Psittacosis
Cryptosporidiosis Q fever
Cyclosporiasis Rabies (human)
Dengue Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Diptheria Rubella
E-coli shiga toxin-producing infection Salmonellosis
Ehrlichiosis SARS
Encephalitis (arboviral) Shigellosis
Foodborne disease Smallpox*
Gonorrhea Staph Aureus reduced susceptibility to vancomycin
Hantavirus Streptococcal infection; group A, invasive disease
Hemolytic uremic syndrome Syphilis
Hemophilus influenza invasive disease TB
Hepatitis A Tetanus
Hepatitis B

Toxic shock

syndrome

Hepatitis C, acute Toxoplasmosis (congenital)
HIV Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (CJD/vCJD)
Influenza death (< 18 year old) Trichinosis
Legionellosis Typhoid
Leprosy Typhus
Leptospirosis Tularemia
Listeriosis Vaccinia*
Lyme disease Vibrio infection
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Viral hemorrhagic fever
Malaria Yellow Fever
Measles Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
Meningitis, pneumococcal  
Meningococcal disease  


*Vaccine use primarily restricted to military personnel

For more information on Communicable Diseases, go to the CDC website at www.cdc.gov or call the Orange County Health Department's Communicable Disease Nurses at 919-968-2022 or 919-245-2400.